Ocena wątku:
  • 0 Głosów - 0 Średnio
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Place of Tasawwuf in traditional islam
#1
Place of Tasawwuf in traditional islam
(Shkh Nuh keller, Syed Ali Ashraf, Ibn Ata Allah Al-Iskandari, Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, M. A. K. Danner)
“The mind is a diver, diving deep into the sea of the heart to find the pearls of wisdom. When he brings them to the shore of his being, they wpill out as words from his lips, and with these he buys priceless devotions in Allah’s markets of worship” (‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani)
It is unfortunate but understandable that Islam has remained something of a mystery to most westerners… But what is more astonishing that Sufizm is similar mystery for many muslims, who see it as some kind of innovation or deviation. This is an introductory lesson about Sufizm, that I hope will correct our views.
When Allah swt created Adam (as) He made him superior to the angels by giving him knowledge of the essence of entire creation.

Allah taught him names, His attributes. And every attribute was involved in the creation of an object and manifested in that object.
When Adam received the Names, the attributes, all these qualities were implanted within his being, and through them he understood the whole universe.
So it is necessary for each of us to understand the nature of this our gift. Only then we can know our relationship with the universe and our Creator. Without this understanding there is a danger that the teachings of the religion will be only an external dress, which is outward, but not active inwardly. When this happens, the practice of the religion turn into a rule of customs and the presence of Allah (swt) within our hearts is not realized.

It is true, that paradise is promised to those who simply and sincerely follow Allah’s commandments and the Prophet’s instructions, but Qur’an also sais: “Those who are believers among you, and the learned, Allah will increase their rank” (Muhadila, 11) and “Are those who are learned equal to those who are ignorant?” (Zumar, 9)

Also we know that people will be divided into 3 groups – people of Hell, people of paradise, and people closest to Allah (Waqi’a 7-11)
So those who have strived and have been blessed with knowledge of themselves and Allah will have higher rank. Because this knowledge increases one’s love for Allah and the Prophet (saws), and the more one loves the closer one can draw. With such knowledge we understand that the practices of religion are the form of wisdom, and by accepting the form we realize the substance/essence. (The ways and means of realizing the substance within the form is Sufizm)

Tasawwuf—is the word for the English Sufism. Where did Tasawwuf come from? What role does it play in the din (religion) of Islam?
And most importantly, what is the command of Allah about it?
As for the origin of the term Tasawwuf, like many other Islamic discliplines, its name was not known to the first generation of Muslims.
The historian Ibn Khaldun notes in his Muqaddima:
This knowledge is a branch of the sciences of Sacred Law that originated within the Umma.

It basically consists of dedication to worship, total dedication to Allah (swt), disregard for the ornament of the world, abstinence from the pleasure, wealth, and prestige sought by most men, and retiring from others to worship alone.
This was the general rule among the Companions of the Prophet (saws) and the early Muslims, but when involvement in this-worldly things became widespread from the second Islamic century onwards and people became absorbed in worldliness, those devoted to worship came to be called Sufiyya or People of Tasawwuf (Ibn Khaldun, al-Muqaddima [N.d. Reprint. Mecca: Dar al-Baz, 1397/1978], 467).

In Ibn Khaldun’s words, the essence of Tasawwuf - "total dedication to Allah (swt)," was "the general rule among the Companions of the Prophet (saws) and the early Muslims."
So if the word did not exist in earliest times, we should not forget that this is also the case with many other Islamic disciplines, such as tafsir, (‘Qur'anic exegesis,’) or science of hadith (‘ilm al-jarh wa ta‘dil, ‘the science of the positive and negative factors that affect hadith narrators acceptability,)’ or tawhid (‘ilm al-tawhid, the science of belief in Islamic tenets of faith,) all of which proved are very important to the correct preservation and transmission of the religion.

As for the origin of the word Tasawwuf, it may be from Sufi, the person who does Tasawwuf. The earliest mention of this term was by Hasan al-Basri who died 110 years after the Hijra, and he said, "I saw a Sufi circumambulating the Kaaba, and offered him a dirham, but he would not accept it." It seems better to understand Tasawwuf by first asking what a Sufi is; and the best definition of it is by the Prophet (saws) who said:
Allah Most High says: "He who is hostile to a friend of Mine I declare war against. My slave approaches Me with nothing more beloved to Me than what I have made obligatory upon him, and My slave keeps drawing nearer to Me with voluntary works until I love him.

And when I love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, his sight with which he sees, his hand with which he seizes, and his foot with which he walks. If he asks me, I will surely give to him, and if he seeks refuge in Me, I will surely protect him" (Fath al-Bari, 11.340–41, hadith 6502. This hadith was related by Imam Bukhari, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Bayhaqi, and others, and is sahih);

It shows the central reality of Tasawwuf, which is the change, while describing the way to this change. Traditional definition of sufi used by scholars is: (Faqihun ‘amila bi ‘ilmihi fa awrathahu Llahu ‘ilma ma lam ya‘lam) ‘A man of religious learning who applied what he knew, so Allah gave him knowledge of what he did not know.’

To clarify, a Sufi is
1. a man of religious learning, because the hadith says, "My slave approaches Me with nothing more beloved to Me than what I have made obligatory upon him," and only through learning can the Sufi know the command of Allah, or what has been made obligatory for him.

2. He has applied what he knew, because the hadith says he not only approaches Allah with the obligatory, but "keeps drawing nearer to Me with voluntary works until I love him."

3. And in turn, Allah gave him knowledge of what he did not know, because the hadith says, "And when I love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, his sight with which he sees, his hand with which he seizes [sizis], and his foot with which he walks," which is a metaphor for the perfect awareness of tawhid, which in the context of human actions such as hearing, sight, seizing, and walking, consists of realizing the words of the Qur'an about Allah that,
"It is He who created you and what you do" (Qur'an 37:96).

The origin of the way of the Sufi lies in the prophetic sunna. The sincerity to Allah that it requires was the rule among the earliest Muslims, to whom this was simply a state of being without a name, while it only became a distinct discipline when the majority of the Community had drifted away and changed from this state.

Muslims of later generations required systematic effort to attain it, and it was because of the change in the Islamic environment after the earliest generations, that a discipline by the name of Tasawwuf appeared.
Another question is: How central is Tasawwuf to the religion, and: Where does it fit into Islam? Perhaps the best answer is the hadith of Muslim, that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said:
As we sat one day with the Messenger of Allah (saws), a man in pure white clothing and jet black hair came to us, without a trace of traveling upon him, though none of us knew him.

He sat down before the Prophet (saws) bracing his knees against his, resting his hands on his legs, and said: "Muhammad, tell me about Islam." The Messenger of Allah (saws) said: "Islam is to testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and to perform the prayer, give zakat, fast in Ramadan, and perform the pilgrimage to the House if you can find a way."

He said: "You have spoken the truth," and we were surprised that he should ask and then confirm the answer. Then he said: "Tell me about true faith (iman)," and the Prophet (saws) answered: "It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His inspired Books, His messengers, the Last Day, and in destiny, its good and evil."
"You have spoken the truth," he said, "Now tell me about the perfection of faith (ihsan)," and the Prophet (saws) answered: "It is to worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you see Him not, He sees you."

The hadith continues to where ‘Umar said:
Then the visitor left. I waited a long while, and the Prophet (saws) said to me, "Do you know, ‘Umar, who was the questioner?" and I replied, "Allah and His messenger know best." He said,
"It was Gabriel, who came to you to teach you your religion" (Sahih Muslim, 1.37: hadith 8).
This is a sahih hadith, described by Imam Nawawi as one of the hadiths upon which the Islamic religion turns. The religion of Islam is composed of the three fundamentals mentioned in the hadith:
Islam, or external compliance (match) with what Allah asks of us; Iman, or the belief in the unseen that the prophets have informed us of; and Ihsan, or to worship Allah as though one sees Him.

The Qur'an says, in Surat Maryam:
"Surely We have revealed the Remembrance, and surely We shall preserve it" (Qur'an 15:9),
How it is going to be preserved? it is by human beings, the traditional scholars He (swt) has sent at each level of the religion.
The level of Islam has been preserved by the Imams of Shari‘a or ‘Sacred Law’; the level of Iman, by the Imams of ‘Aqida or ‘tenets of faith’(tikejimo principas); and the level of Ihsan, "to worship Allah as though you see Him," by the Imams of Tasawwuf.

The hadith’s very words "to worship Allah" show us the interrelation of these three fundamentals, "worship" is known through the external prescriptions of Islam, the validity of this worship needs Iman, without which worship would be empty motions; and the words, "as if you see Him," show that Ihsan implies a human change, having the experience of what, for most of us, is not experienced. So to understand Tasawwuf, we must look at the nature of this change in relation to both Islam and Iman.

At the level of Islam, Tasawwuf requires Islam through ‘submission to the rules of Sacred Law.’ But Islam, for its part, equally requires Tasawwuf. Why? Because the sunna which Muslims have been commanded to follow is not just the words and actions of the Prophet (saws), but also his states, states of the heart such as taqwa ‘godfearingness,’ ikhlas ‘sincerity,’ tawakkul ‘reliance on Allah,’ rahma ‘mercy,’ tawadu‘ ‘humility,’ and so on.
In Islamic ethic human actions are not simply divided into two, right or wrong; but rather five, arranged in order of their consequences in the next world.

The obligatory (wajib) is that whose performance is rewarded by Allah in the next life and whose nonperformance is punished.
The recommended (mandub) is that whose performance is rewarded, but whose nonperformance is not punished.
The permissible (mubah) is indifferent, unconnected with either reward or punishment.
The offensive (makruh) is that whose nonperformance is rewarded but whose performance is not punished.
The unlawful (haram) is that whose nonperformance is rewarded and whose performance is punished, if one dies unrepentant.
Human states of the heart, come under each of these headings.
Yet they are not dealt with in books of fiqh, because unlike the prayer, zakat, or fasting, it is impossible to count them, to get amount of them that must be done. But though they are not countable, they are very important to every Muslim. A few examples:

(1) Love of Allah. In Surat al-Baqara, Allah blames those who ascribe associates to Allah whom they love as much as they love Allah. Then He says,
"And those who believe are greater in love for Allah" (Qur'an 2:165), making being a believer conditional upon having greater love for Allah than any other.

(2) Mercy. Bukhari and Muslim relate that the Prophet (saws) said, "Whomever is not merciful to people, Allah will show no mercy" (Sahih Muslim, 4.1809: hadith 2319), and Tirmidhi relates the well authenticated (hasan) hadith "Mercy is not taken out of anyone except the damned" (al-Jami‘ al-sahih, 4.323: hadith 1923).

(3) Love of each other. Muslim relates in his Sahih that the Prophet (saws) said, "By Him in whose hand is my soul, none of you shall enter paradise until you believe, and none of you shall believe until you love one another . . . ." (Sahih Muslim, 1.74: hadith 54).

(4) Presence of mind in the prayer (salat). Abu Dawud relates in his Sunan that ‘Ammar ibn Yasir heard the Prophet (saws) say, "Truly, a man leaves, and none of his prayer has been recorded for him except a tenth of it, a ninth of it, eighth of it, seventh of it, sixth of it, fifth of it, fourth of it, third of it, a half of it" (Sunan Abi Dawud, 1.211: hadith 796)—meaning that none of a person’s prayer counts for him except that in which he is present in his heart with Allah.

(5) Love of the Prophet. Bukhari relates in his Sahih that the Prophet (saws) said, "None of you believes until I am more beloved to him than his father, his son, and all people" (Fath al-Bari, 1.58, hadith 15).
It is plain from these texts that none of the states mentioned—whether mercy, love, or presence of heart—are quantifiable, for the Shari‘a cannot specify that we must "do two units of mercy" or "have three units of presence of mind" in the way that the number of rak‘as of prayer can be specified, yet each of them is personally obligatory for the Muslim. Let us see at a few examples of states of the heart that are haram or ‘strictly unlawful’:

(1) Fear of anyone besides Allah. Allah (swt) says in Surat al-Baqara of the Qur'an,
"And fulfill My covenant: I will fulfill your covenant—And fear Me alone" (Qur'an2:40), "it establishes that a human being is obliged to fear no one besides Allah (swt)" (according to Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, (Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, 3.42).

(2) Despair. Allah (swt) says,
"None despairs of Allah’s mercy except the people who disbelieve" (Qur'an 12:87), it shows the unlawfulness of this inward state by joining it with the worst human condition possible, that of unbelief.

(3) Arrogance. Muslim relates in his Sahih that the Prophet (saws) said, "No one shall enter paradise who has a particle of arrogance in his heart" (Sahih Muslim, 1.93: hadith 91).

(4) Envy,meaning to wish for another to lose the blessings he enjoys. Abu Dawud relates that the Prophet (saws) said, "Beware of envy, for envy consumes good works as flames consume firewood" (Sunan Abi Dawud, 4.276: hadith 4903).

(5) Showing off in acts of worship. Al-Hakim in sahih says the Prophet (saws) said, "The slightest bit of showing off in good works is as if worshipping others with Allah" (al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, 1.4).
These and similar haram inward states are not found in books of fiqh (teisės mokslas), because fiqh can only deal with quantifiable descriptions of rulings. Rather, with them deal the scholars of the ‘inner fiqh’ of Tasawwuf, men such as Imam al-Ghazali in his Ihya’ ‘ulum al-din [The reviving of the religious sciences], Imam al-Rabbani in his Maktubat [Letters], al-Suhrawardi in his ‘Awarif al-Ma‘arif [The knowledges of the illuminates], Abu Talib al-Makki in Qut al-qulub [The sustenance of hearts], and similar classic works. These are books of Shari‘a and their questions are questions of Sacred Law, of how it is lawful or unlawful for a Muslim to be; and dealing with states of the heart.

Who needs such information? All Muslims, for the Qur'anic verses and hadiths all point to the fact that a Muslim must not only do certain things and say certain things, but also must be something, must attain certain states of the heart and eliminate others. Do we ever fear someone besides Allah? Do we have a particle of arrogance in our hearts?

Is our love for the Prophet (saws) greater than our love for any other human being? Is there the slightest bit of showing off in our good works?
It is not an easy thing to reach... That is why helping Muslims to attain these states was not left to amateurs [amates], but rather delegated to ‘ulama of the heart, the scholars of Islamic Tasawwuf. For most people, these are not easy transformations to make, because of the force of habit, because of the subtlety with which we can deceive ourselves, but most of all because each of us has an ego, the self, the Me, al-nafs, about which Allah testifies in Surat Yusuf:
"Verily the self ever commands to do evil" (Qur'an 12:53).
We all know hadith by Muslim in his Sahih, that:
”The first person judged on Resurrection Day will be a man martyred [mated] in battle.

He will be brought forth, Allah will remind him with His blessings upon him and the man will acknowledge them, and Allah will say, "What have you done with them?" to which the man will respond, "I fought to the death for You."
Allah will reply, "You lie. You fought in order to be called a hero, and it has already been said." Then he will be sentenced and dragged away on his face and thrown into the fire.

Then a man will be brought forward who learned Sacred Knowledge, taught it to others, and who recited the Qur'an. Allah will remind him of His gifts to him and the man will acknowledge them, and then Allah will say, "What have you done with them?" The man will answer, "I acquired Sacred Knowledge, taught it, and recited the Qur'an, for Your sake."

Allah will say, "You lie. You learned so as to be called a scholar, and read the Qur'an so as to be called a reciter, and it has already been said." Then the man will be sentenced and dragged away on his face to the fire.
Then a man will be brought forward whom Allah generously provided for, giving him various kinds of wealth, and Allah will recall to him the benefits given, and the man will acknowledge them, to which Allah will say, "And what have you done with them?" The man will answer, " I have spent everything for Your sake."

Allah will say, "You lie. You did it so as to be called generous, and it has already been said." Then he will be sentenced and dragged away on his face to be flung into the fire” (Sahih Muslim, 3.1514: hadith 1905).
We should not fool ourselves about this, because our fate depends on it: in our childhood, our parents taught us how to behave by praising us or blaming us (so sometimes we showed off in doing good, and our parents were happy with us).
But when childhood ends, and we come of age in Islam, the religion makes it clear to us, "The slightest bit of showing off in good works is as if worshipping others with Allah", that being motivated by what others think is no longer good enough, and that we must change our motives entirely, and be motivated by nothing but desire for Allah Himself.

The Islamic revelation tells us that it is obligatory to break our habits of thinking and motivation/intention, but it does not tell us how. For that, we must go to the scholars of these states, and Qur'an says:
"Ask those who know if you know not" (Qur'an 16:43)
There is no doubt that bringing this change, purifying the Muslims by bringing them to spiritual sincerity, was one of the central duties of the Prophet Muhammad (saws), for Allah says in the Surat Al ‘Imran of the Qur'an,
"Allah has truly blessed the believers, for He has sent them a messenger of themselves, who recites His signs to them and purifies them, and teaches them the Book and the Wisdom" (Qur'an 3:164),
This aya lists four tasks of the prophetic mission, the second of which, yuzakkihim means precisely to ‘purify them’. This function cannot end with the passing of the first generation, because it is part of an eternal revelation, "And follow the path of him who turns unto Me" (Qur'an 31:15).

These verses tells us both keeping the company of and following the example of a teacher. This is why in the history of Tasawwuf, we find that though there were many methods and schools of thought, these two things never changed: keeping the company of a teacher, and following his example—in exactly the same way that the Sahaba were uplifted and purified by keeping the company of the Prophet (saws) and following his example.

So we have spoken about Tasawwuf in connection to Islam, as a Shari‘a science necessary to fully realize the Sacred Law in one’s life, to attain the states of the heart demanded by the Qur'an and hadith. This close connection between Shari‘a and Tasawwuf is expressed by the statement of Imam Malik, that "he who practices Tasawwuf without learning Sacred Law corrupts his faith, while he who learns Sacred Law without practicing Tasawwuf corrupts himself.

Only he who combines the two proves true." This is why Tasawwuf was taught as part of the traditional curriculum in madrasas across the Muslim world from Malaysia to Morocco, why many of the greatest Shari‘a scholars of this Umma have been Sufis, and why until the end of the Islamic caliphate at the beginning of this century, there were teachers of Tasawwuf in Islamic institutions of higher.
But there is a second aspect of Tasawwuf that we have not yet talked about; its relation to Iman or ‘True Faith,’ the second pillar of the Islamic religion.

All Muslims believe in Allah, and that He is transcendently beyond anything conceivable to the minds of men, such as number, extension, place, time, and so on. Allah is beyond all of that; in His own words, "There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him" (Qur'an 42:11)
If we reflect for a moment on this verse, in the light of the hadith of Muslim about Ihsan that "it is to worship Allah as though you see Him," we realize that the means of seeing here is not the eye; nor the mind, but certitude, the light of Iman, it is not the eye or the brain, but ruh, soul. Allah (swt) says: "Say: ‘The soul is of the affair of my Lord’" (Qur'an 17:85).

The food of this ruh is dhikr or the ‘remembrance of Allah.’ Why? Because acts of obedience increase the light of certainty and Iman in the soul, and dhikr is among the greatest of them, as hadith states: "Shall I not tell you of the best of your works, the purest of them in the eyes of your Master, the highest in raising your rank, better than giving gold and silver, and better for you than to meet your enemy and smite their necks, and they smite yours?" They said, "This—what is it, O Messenger of Allah?" and he said: Dhikru Llahi ‘azza wa jall, "The remembrance of Allah Mighty and Majestic." (al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, 1.496).

Increasing the strength of Iman through good actions and especially through dhikr is very important in traditional spirituality. A non-Muslim once asked me, "If God exists, then why all this beating around the bush? Why doesn’t He just come out and say so?"
The answer is that taklif or ‘moral responsibility’ in this life is not only concerned with outward actions, but with what we believe, our ‘Aqida—and the strength with which we believe it.

If belief in God was effortless in this world, there would be no point in Allah making us responsible for it, it would be automatic, involuntary, like our belief, say, that London is in England. There would no point in making someone responsible for something impossible not to believe.
But the responsibility Allah has place upon us is belief in the Unseen, as a test for us in this world to choose between non-believe and Iman, to distinguish believer from unbeliever, and some believers above others.
We have not only been commanded as Muslims to believe in certain things, but have been commanded to have absolute certainty in them.

The world we see around us is composed of veils of light and darkness: events come that knock the Iman out of some of us, and Allah tests each of us as to the degree of certainty with which we believe.(some of us this degree is low.. some is stronger) ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "If the Iman of Abu Bakr were weighed against the Iman of the entire Umma, it would outweigh it."

Now, in traditional ‘Aqida one of the most important tenets (principles) is the wahdaniyya or ‘oneness and uniqueness’ of Allah swt. But the ability to hold this in mind in the rough daily life is a function of yaqin (the strength of certainty) in our heart. In Qur'an (Surat al-A‘raf):
"Say: ‘I do not possess benefit for myself or harm, except as Allah wills’" (Qur'an 7:188),
yet we tend to rely on ourselves and our plans, Despite ‘Aqida tells us that ourselves and our plans have no effect, that Allah alone brings about effects, still we often rely on ourselves, and make our own plans…
If you want to test yourself on this, the next time you contact someone for help, and see whom you are relying upon. If you are like most of us, Allah is not at the front of your thoughts, despite the fact that He alone is controlling the outcome. Isn’t this a lapse in our ‘Aqida, or, at least, in our certainty?

Tasawwuf corrects such shortcomings by step-by-step increasing the Muslim’s certainty in Allah. The two central means to get yakin is mudhakara, or learning, and dhikr.
The last question i will talk is: What about the bad Sufis we read about, who abuse the teachings of Islam?

The answer is that there are two meanings of Sufi: the first is "Anyone who considers himself a Sufi,". But we always have to remember the correct definition of a Sufi as "a man of religious learning who applied what he knew, so Allah gave him knowledge of what he did not know."
The very first thing a Sufi, as a man of religious learning knows is that the Shari‘a and ‘Aqida of Islam are above every human being.

Whoever does not know this will never be a Sufi, except in the orientalist sense of the word—like someone standing in an expensive suit with a briefcase to convince people he is a businessman. A real businessman is something else.
Today it is often forgotten that the ‘ulama who have criticized Sufis, such as Ibn al-Jawzi in his Talbis Iblis [The Devil’s deception], or Ibn Taymiya in places in his Fatawa, or Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya, were not criticizing Tasawwuf as a discipline of the Shari‘a.

The proof of this is Ibn al-Jawzi’s five-volume Sifat al-safwa, which contains the biographies of the very same Sufis mentioned in al-Qushayri’s famous Tasawwuf manual al-Risala al-Qushayriyya. Ibn Taymiya considered himself a Sufi of the Qadiri order, and volumes ten and eleven of his thirty-seven-volume Majmu‘ al-fatawa are devoted to Tasawwuf. And Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya wrote his three-volume Madarij al-salikin, a detailed commentary on ‘Abdullah al-Ansari al-Harawi’s tract on the spiritual stations of the Sufi path, Manazil al-sa’irin. These works show that their authors’ criticisms were not directed at Tasawwuf as such, but rather at specific groups of their times.

For all of the reasons we have mentioned, Tasawwuf was accepted as an essential part of the Islamic religion by the ‘ulama of this Umma. The proof of this is all the famous scholars of Shari‘a sciences who had the higher education of Tasawwuf, among them Ibn ‘Abidin, al-Razi, Ahmad Sirhindi, Zakariyya al-Ansari, al-‘Izz ibn ‘Abd al-Salam, Ibn Daqiq al-‘Eid, Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, Shah Wali Allah, Ahmad Dardir, Ibrahim al-Bajuri, ‘Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi, Imam al-Nawawi, Taqi al-Din al-Subki, and al-Suyuti.

To summarize: First we looked at Tasawwuf and Shari‘a, we found that many Qur'anic verses and sahih hadiths tells the Muslim to eliminate haram inner states as arrogance, envy, and fear of anyone besides Allah; and on the other hand, to acquire such obligatory inner states as mercy, love of other Muslims, presence of mind in prayer, and love of the Prophet (saws). We found that these inward states could not be dealt with in books of fiqh, whose purpose is to specify the outward, quantifiable aspects of the Shari‘a.

The knowledge of these states is nevertheless of the huge importance to every Muslim, and this is why it was studied under the ‘ulama of Ihsan, the teachers of Tasawwuf, in all periods of Islamic history until the beginning of the present century.
Then I was talking about Iman, and found that though the ‘Aqida of Muslims is that Allah alone has any effect in this world, keeping this in mind in everhday life is not easy, and that this is possible only if you have yaqin, certainty. And Tasawwuf, teaches you how to increase this certainty through mudhakara, ‘learning tenets of faith’ and dhikr, ‘the remembrance of Allah,’ in accordance with the words of the Prophet (saws) about Ihsan that "it is worship Allah as though you see Him."

Lastly, we found that accusations against Tasawwuf made by scholars such as Ibn al-Jawzi, and Ibn Taymiya were not directed against Tasawwuf in principle, but to specific groups and individuals in the times of these authors, the proof for which is the other books by the same authors that showed their understanding of Tasawwuf as a Shari‘a science.
Today what we have in our deen is Islam without spirituality and Shari‘a without Tasawwuf. But if we read the classical works of Islamic scholarship, we learn that Tasawwuf has been a Shari‘a science like tafsir, hadith, or any other, throughout the history of Islam. The Prophet (saws) said,
"Truly, Allah does not look at your outward forms and wealth, but rather at your hearts and your works" (Sahih Muslim, 4.1389: hadith 2564).
To end with the name of Allah. This word is perfect in form and essence

1. No gender (God Godess)/ no plural or singular (God Gods) / no division (1/3 of God)

2. If first Alif is deleted – the Name becomes li’llah (to or for God)

If the first lam is deleted it becomes lahu (to Him)

If the second lam is deleted it become Hu (the name of pure essence)
[Obrazek: bannerad.gif]
http://www.sabily.org/website/ - Sabily - System operacyjny dla muzułmanów (alternatywa dla Windowsa)
http://www.euro-sunni.com/forum/index.php - angielskie forum z polską sekcją
http://www.youtube.com/user/macgro7 - moje filmy


Skocz do:




Kontakt | Islam Sunna | Wróć do góry | Wróć do forów | Wersja bez grafiki | RSS